December 20, 2015 by Jim McNally - Featured
Document in detail
A New Framework for Cosmology
A new framework for cosmology is developed here because the existing framework does not work. This new theory is based upon treating space itself in a similar way to our current treatment of matter. In turn it is shown how matter itself is created in the same way as space. It explains the production of neutrinos and dark matter as well as why there is no significant anti-matter. A timeline for the whole of creation is developed of many hundreds of billions of years. It shows how velocity and acceleration of particles is produced by electric charge and by gravity. It shows the basis of the quantum world. It suggests a possible new way of examining consciousness.
First Edition October 2015
Published by Val de Vernazoubres Press
Our knowledge of the universe is considerable; so considerable that we know that we do not know anything much. Our knowledge of the stars, planets and galaxies shows us that, probably, the majority of the matter of the universe is ‘dark’ matter, unknown to us because it does not reflect nor interact with light. Currently ‘dark energy’ is being postulated to be even more massive. Our knowledge is restricted to less than 10% of all the mass of the universe!
Further problems abound. Current theories suggest that there should be ‘anti-matter’ in the same proportion as the matter that makes up our sun and galaxy – where is it? Even worse our prime theories, Einstein’s relativity and quantum mechanics, upon which so much is based, seem to be incompatible with each other at their junction. Other problems are the initial entropy, what are neutrinos, gravity waves, etc., etc.
It is time for a rethink and, with luck, this might give us help with our future in space – a Star-trek drive!
When the astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe was expanding and produced his famous graph it swiftly led to the ‘big bang’ theory with galaxies speeding from a common point. This process seems to have started over 13 Billion years ago. We measure its progress by looking ever further back in time when we photograph distant galaxies. The relationship discovered by Hubble is that the velocity that we are moving with respect to a distant galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us.
This recession velocity is determined by the red-shift in the light from distant galaxies and super-nova and has the value of about 2*10-18 m/s /m. This value is gradually being firmed-up as more teams work on it.
Galaxy recession vis distance
Velocity in Thousands of K/m per second
There is another interpretation. The universe is more than just galaxies of matter – it is space as well! Space should not just be interpreted as a ‘nothing’ in which matter moves and plays. An alternative view that treats space on an equal footing to matter is that space itself is continually increasing in volume – a continuous creation theory! This is not volume that is pouring in at some distant place from some other dimension; it is volume that is being produced by every bit of all existing volume:
Rate of volume increase = α .V
Where alpha is the creation constant and V is the volume.
Consider the space in front of you. The billions of air or other molecules all have ‘space’ between and inside them. The ‘matter’ essentially takes no part in the activity of space creation now discussed; only the space does. A sphere of space of radius r and hence volume of 4/3 π r3 is, in this theory, increasing in volume at the rate of
α * 4/3 π r3 cubic metres per second.
This causes its surface area to move forward at a velocity u.
Thus u = (Volume increase /second)/Surface area = α* r/3 i.e. the expansion velocity is directly proportional to distance as, of course, Hubble discovered. This gives the value of the creation constant,
α = 3*Hubble value ( about 6*10-18 s-1).
The stuff of space
Now that we have treated space itself as an ‘entity’ rather than just a ‘nothing’ it becomes necessary to ask ‘what is it?’. It looks very like nothing to us but it has, at the very least, volume and duration (it carries on existing). Another property that is involved is a strain or hyper-twist that causes the volume of space to fold in upon itself so that there is no ‘outside’ to our universe of space. Each volume of space has a hyper-twist in it so that over the vast volume of space in the universe the twists sum to a closure (360 hyper degrees?) and so, consequently, there is no outside. It is, fortunately us with our limited perception, so small a hyper-twist in our human type volumes that we only notice our standard three dimensional space. It means that the geometry of space is best considered as a 4D hyper-sphere of finite volume which in our enormously large universe looks, locally, like a 3D volume.
Another space property, additional to volume, duration and strain, is that space is atomised into little lumps. It is lots of little equal adjacent volumes packed side by side – perhaps usefully thought of as cubes in a cubic structure. There are no gaps between adjacent lumps and they are not all in the same place so that it is an extended volume of lumps of space. I call these lumps ‘spaceons’ which, in their vast number, makes up the volume of our universe.
The ‘duration’ property is needed for change to occur in the universe – it is ‘proto-time’. This duration period is not the end of the spaceon’s volume so that it totally disappears; it is the marker for possible change to occur before a relaunch of the volume mode and the next period of duration. It is a clock-pulse between possible change events. This pulse-rate very slightly varies with the hyper-strain so that pulse-rates of adjacent spaceons can be out of phase with each other.
From where do spaceons come?
Spaceons come from the unfolding of ‘existence potential’. This philosophical concept could, perhaps, be likened to ideas before they become formed; do ideas exist before they are articulated? Here it is space before it is formed. Perhaps it could be considered as being from another reality. Even worse, the ‘volumes’ being formed are the products of our translation of them as learned by our slime-mould ancestors many millions of years ago. Other beings from a different place could well translate it differently – volume might have no meaning for them. Rather than try to comprehend such possibilities this text will concentrate on calling the unfoldings ‘volumes’ i.e. the spaceons have volume as we understand the term. These volumes have deformable shapes which, at high hyper-twists give smaller 3D volumes even though the 4D hyper-volume is constant.
The ‘rule’ is that when ‘nothing’ of ‘our’ universe exists, as infrequently happens at the junction of spaceons, the existence potential unfolds and twists into a left-handed and a right-handed pair of spaceons.
These ‘nothings’, following the same formation rules, keep on arising whenever adjacent spaceons have the change part of their clock pulses in close coincidence. Each of these very rare probabilities results in another new spaceon pair. Of course, if it possible for one pair to form then it is possible for this to happen repeatedly hence forming our universe.
The two types of spaceon, once they are formed, no longer recognise each other’s volume – they co-exist as two separate, superimposed, volumes that are within each other. Thus a volume of 1000 spaceons is composed of 1000 left-handed spaceons (L-spaceons) and 1000 right-handed spaceons (R-spaceons), each only recognising and therefore adjacent to only its own handedness. However space-strain is recognised (and at least in part formed) by both types of spaceon.
The chance of a ‘nothing’ happening is very remote. Assuming that spaceons are cubic there are 8 spaceons touching at a point and, of course, another 8 spaceons co-incident but of the opposite type. Just getting clock pulses synchronous to within 1% involves a probability in the order of 1 in (10-2)7. This results in the very small value of creation constant of (6*10-18 s-1) that produces a doubling of volume only every few billion years. Consequently we do not see space expanding in our everyday lives.
The first spaceon production was into a very small universe of zero volume. The 4-d hyper-radius of this initial universe was much smaller than the size of an individual spaceon so that as the spaceons formed and took up the average strain of their surroundings they consequently folded in upon themselves to give no external 3D volume. They each became their own closed-in universe not adding to the 3D volume of ‘our’ normal space. These were and are pieces of proto-matter – ‘preons’. Because they are still essentially spaceons they have the same creation rate i.e. 6*10-18 s-1 .
This production continued for many billions upon billions of events – the numbers doubling about every 3 billion years. It could only cease if and when a 3D volume could come into existence that had a hyper-radius greater than the 3D radius of a spaceon. This could not happen because each pair folded into themselves as they first emerged and, during the active part of the clock-pulse, took the surrounding strain. The preons grew in number side by side in a volumeless ‘blob’. There were, of course, separate left-handed and right-handed preon blobs.
With a very large number of preons there will be more than one emergence of a spaceon pair per average clock-pulse. When two emergences, by chance, occurred next to each other at the same instant (16 clock-pulses synchronised) the spaceons that appeared would not be totally surrounded by folded up spaceons (preons) and so would not, themselves, form preons.
Total number of Preons
Assuming that eight spaceons/preons are in contact with each other (cubic structure) and that their clock frequency, β, is about 1023 Hz (see later) then for a creation event to occur in that pulse is p7 = α/β . For a double creation, side by side, to occur means that p15 = 6.5 * 10-87 .Consequently the number of preons needed to produce N * p15 = 1 is about 1086. This vast number, 1086 , is thus indicative of the number of preons in the universe before spaceon production commenced and the next phase of creation began.
The Great Melange Commences
Neutrinos and space
When the first, non preons (i.e. spaceons) formed there were so few of them that consequently they were under high 4D strain. This was the period of formation of the first flush of the neutrinos that swarm in our universe. Two highly strained spaceons could, together, form a closed volume with each contributing 50% of the necessary strain for closure. Three together, each providing 33% of the strain could close. These entities, neither spaceon nor totally closed preons, formed until, by chance, two spaceons formed adjacent to each other so the strain fell below the 33% threshold. From then onwards the spaceons did not become closed upon themselves. Space was born! The universe of matter and space and time started. The production of normal 3D volume spaceons, initially highly strained, commenced.
Imbalance of spaceon numbers
Significantly, as spaceons unfolded from the existence potential, the left-handed and the right-handed were ‘out-of-step’ because of the chance nature of that adjacent formation being different in the two blobs. Some spaceons continued to immediately join to form neutrinos in one blob whilst in the opposite handedness blob they started earlier forming full free spacons.
The great expansion
Within the preon blobs the 3D spaceons began to increase in number with no more preons or neutrinos forming. The existing preons began to separate from each other by intervening spaceons. The universe of matter and space was expanding!
Initially the main spaceon production was the preons themselves because there were a lot of them and very few spaceons. Thus the very small volume of space had a very massive space injection rate causing preon clumps (proto-galaxies?) to separate at very large velocities – much too fast for information to pass between them!
Forming of original preon groupings
It is now obvious that rather than call them left and right hand twisted spaceons they are positive and negative spaceons and correspondingly the preons are positive and negative electrically charged proto-particles.
Spaceon preon interaction
Another, very significant, property now emerges. When a spaceon ‘touches’ a preon the hyper-strain becomes very large and joins with the twist of the preon to retwist the spaceon into the preon’s own twist i.e. positive twist preons twist negative twist spaceons into positive twist spaceons. These new spaceons promptly leave the region surrounding the preon as yet more re-twistings occur. A re-twisting happen at each clock-pulse of the preon – many billions upon billions of times a second.
A pair of preons of different handedness can become bonded together by each swapping the spaceon produced by the other.
This, of course, is what we call ‘electrical’ bonding. Left and right handed preons is what we call positive and negative electricity. Electric fields are the movement of spaceons into and out of the influence of a negative or positive preon.
An additional consequence of there being fewer spaceons is that there will be more double groupings of the same type preon. These will not only join their opposites to form doublet dark matter but also join their opposite triple prion to form a ‘down’ quark.
As the spaceons formed amongst the preons over billions of years smaller groups of preons could eventually be surrounded by spaceons. There were groups of threes, twos and one preons as the number of separating spaceons grew. Bigger groupings obviously existed but the significant groupings were:
3+ and 1- , 3+ and 2- , 3- and 1+ , 3- and 2+
2+ and 1- , 2+ and 2- , 2- and 1-
1+ and 1-
The 3+ and 3- groupings are unstable and do not permanently join but can stay in isolation. Larger groupings are possible but are of short duration.
From this stage onwards the formation of protons and neutrons commences. The unused negative triples are, of course, electrons. Our stars and galaxies could then start forming.
These preon groups are, of course, also electrically charged particles. Obviously the clumping of 3 – is an electron. Five of these groupings are electrically charged as 1 or 2 charges and so can interact via the electric fields to form additional joint groups.
Because the numbers of the two types of spaceon were ‘out of step’ more positive spaceons were available to surround the positive preon groups with the consequence that many more single preons were produced compared to their negative counterpart. The negative preon groups mostly produced doublets (which were in excess numbers to positive doublets.
Single positive and single negative bonded together and so had no further involvement with other electric fields, because they swap spaceons directly. The same applies to double negative with double positive groupings. These are particles of ‘dark matter’ because external electric fields now do not affect these particles. They will travel the universe affected only by gravity.
The other possibilities for dark matter are preon groups 2+ and 1- and 1- (a triplet) and its mirror triplet.
Other groupings that formed are still affected by external electric fields – unlike the dark matter groupings. For example a grouping of 3 preons could join with a group of 1 leaving two charges for external electric fields to interact. A grouping of 3 could join with a grouping of 2. These doubled-up groups are, of course, quarks.
The initial ‘out of balance’ of the numbers of neutrinos and hence spaceons means that because a single preon needs 8 spaceons surrounding it there will be a deficit of single preons where there is a deficit of spaceons. Thus as the single preons join with their opposite number to make dark matter particles a stage will be reached when one type is all used up. The remaining singles will have to join with opposite doubles or, in particular, triple preons making what we call ‘up’ quarks. This is why no ‘anti-matter’ was produced in the universe – only our up and down quarks. Anti-matter that could have been produced was of a transitory nature and quickly eliminated.
Quark and Dark Matter production (inbalance of spaceon numbers)
The first stars
Once there was sufficient space in the universe it was possible for some regions to have higher densities of quarks than other regions. This allowed gravity (hyper-strain) to concentrate these differences even further so that the first fusion reaction of protons could start. This starts with proton-proton collisions that form deuterium nuclei and positrons.
This very difficult reaction actually changes an up quark to a down quark. It is only possible to happen because another, suitable, particle is at hand. This is the double dark-matter particle that transforms with the single positive preon of an up quark into a new down quark plus a positron. Thus a proton converts to a neutron, the first part of the process for conversion of Hydrogen into Helium that is powering the stars.
Volume of the Universe
This is increasing at an exponential rate following
dV/dt= k + α V
Where k is the volume rate of spaceon production from the preons once the strain was too small for preon production from the preons. Its value of 1086 consequently produces α.1086 spaceons/s and causes the preons to separate at what could be called an ‘inflationary’ rate right at the beginning of volume production.
Thus the variation of volume of space of space with time becomes:
VT = (eαT-1) k
Where k is the equivalent volume of 1086 * (volume of spaceon 10-44) i.e. 1042 m3/s. Further converting all to Billions of years (B) and cubic Light Years gives:
Volume of Universe = (e0.18B-1) 1.2*10-6 lightyears3
The universe is large so these numbers are large: 100 billion years gives the volume 78.8 cubic light years whilst 200 billion years produces 5.17 *109 cubic light years. Our current space volume, assumed to be, for this exercise, 4*1031 cubic light years is reached after 480 billion years. Such long times means that after the initial inflation, the ‘Big Bang’ was not – it was a gentle swelling but for a long time. For about 465 billion years the matter particles of the universe formed and produced the initial stars all hidden from us now in the Cosmic Microwave Background.
The timescales are even longer when account is taken of the time to produce the 1086 preons – 1100 billion years! This combined time of 1580 billion years should, however, be seen in the context that no lifeforms could be around to notice it and also we need to keep in mind that ‘time’ might be our translation of something else just like ‘volume’ could be/is also our translation.
Another possibility is that the ‘constant of creation’ changes with the different strain regimes it is under. Within the preon blobs α could have different values from deep space. Evidence for this possibility could well be that current deep space photos of super-nova type 1A indicate that the expansion rate is increasing. Perhaps the connection is that the less matter density the greater the creation rate.
Around each preon not only are spaceons going in, changing handedness and going out but also they have become almost four dimensional in that the strain is so high that ‘our’ three dimension volume is mostly ‘hidden’. The surrounding spaceons experience not only the handedness of the totally folded in upon itself volume of the preon but also its clock pulse. The input and output of spaceons depends on this clock rate. The overall effect is that there is a region around a preon that is very different from our normal space. It is a ‘nul’ region that is, at the very least, on the boundary of both types of space. The ‘surface area’ of this abnormal space is bounded at a specific value of strain that is common for every preon – φ(0). Its radius is r0.
Quarks and dark matter also have this surrounding nul space bounded at φ(0) but, because of all the interactions of the spaceons bonding them together, the radius of this boundary could well be larger than just a simple preon such as an electron. For a proton, composed of quarks each swapping spaceons, it is much larger.
Velocity and Acceleration
The diagram shows how spaceons of the spaceon sea move around a particle. As the rearmost spaceon moves along to join the alternate side spaceon all the other surrounding spaceons move in unison. Because the volume is constant, no matter what position the spaceon is in, once one spaceon has changed position so then must the others. It is a constant change of position from the front to the rear and can be nothing else. There is no friction – think of it as a superfluid. This constant increase in the number of rear spaceons at the expense of the forwardmost spaceons is, of course, constant change of position i.e. velocity. If there are n changes in the linear position of spaceons in one clock cycle the velocity is
velocity = n * β* s m/s
where s is the ‘size’ (assumed cubical) of the spaceon.
Speed of signals such as light
A change in strain, etc. can only be propagated at the clock rate of spaceons which means that this propogation velocity is a movement of 1 spaceon per clock-pulse
Velocity of propogation of signal = s * β
This is, of course, what we call the speed of light.
Acceleration caused by an electric field
A particle, such as an electron, that is emitting 3 spaceons per cycle is also absorbing 3 opposite handed spaceons per cycle. There is a continuous stream in and stream out. This opposite movement of L and R spaceons is an electric field and the velocity of this output, at a distance r from it, is :
Velocity of spaceon sea =3s3β / 4π r2
There is a corresponding opposite movement of opposite handedness spaceons. This output velocity is transmitted at the speed of light as all surrounding space adjusts to the input.
This causes incident R-Spaceons entering the nearby electron to have increased velocity which produces more input on one side compared to the other. In this case, where it is a receiving electron, the incoming L-Spaceons convert to R-Spaceons and are emitted into R-Space, at an increased velocity, from the electron.
Spaceons emitted by charged particle
The R-space itself is no longer totally balanced with this increased velocity and so readjusts. This happens β times each second so that the velocity of the electron changes i.e. it accelerates.
However another factor comes into play during this acceleration phase – the size of the nul region surrounding each matter particle. In the case of an electron this diameter is such that most of the emerging, newly formed high strain (think little and thin) spaceons with an ‘area’ of cross-section a which is of the same size as the electron nul region are moving directly forward. In the case of a proton the nul region radius is much larger so that only a small proportion of the emerging spaceons are directly forward. The ratio of the diameters of the nul regions are about 42:1 (see later). This difference in nul radius is due to the more complex arrangement of quarks, etc. compared to the much more simply structured electron. The result is that there is less acceleration for a proton for the same electric field (1: 422)
Surrounding each preon group the nul region where the spaceons are being re-twisted and where space strain is close to that necessary for total closure. It cannot be total hyperclosure because the strain of the spaceons surrounding the preon is a mix of the totally closed preon and the nearest spaceons. The strain at the exit to this region is (φ0) and its radius is the significant radius (rφ0).
If the instigating electron is 1 metre from the receiving electron the additional spaceon velocity is 3s3 β/4π and it is repeated β times per second. This velocity increment for the input spaceons is positive on one side but negative on the other so that a factor of 2 is involved. Thus
Acceleration =2 * 3s/4π * c2
(This assumes that for an electron all the emitted spaceons are ‘forward’ spaceons and add linearly to the acceleration.)
Size of Spaceons
The actual measured acceleration of an electron in these circumstances (from Faraday’s law) is about 250 m/s2.
Thus a value for the size of a spacon (s) can be determined as:
= 2.9 * 10-15 metres
This size is many times smaller than an atom but at a volume production of 3*s3*β m3/s for an electron is a production rate of about 3*10-20 m3/s compared to an atom’s volume of perhaps 10-30 m3 ! Obviously a corresponding volume of spaceons are being absorbed but the overall effect is that within a large chunk of atoms, such as the Earth, the average velocity of spaceons with respect to it is essentially zero. There is no Spaceon sea streaming through the Earth as the famous Michelson Morley experimental measurement showed. (If the spaceon sea is the ‘aether’).
In the case of a proton of 2 Up quarks and 1 Down quark the nul region is much larger so that ‘forward’ produced spaceons are a much smaller quantity than in an electron. Only the proportion a/πr02 are the forward ones giving acceleration.
Thus the acceleration of the proton compared to the electron is inversely proportional to the respective squares of the nul radii.
Obviously this is how mass comes into the universe. The mass of a particle is directly proportional to the square of the nul diameter
Acceleration due to space strain
From the nul radius around a group of preons the strains of each surrounding layer of spaceons is that obtained by sharing the φ0 strain equally. Thus if there are 8 spaceons in the spherical layer the strain of each is 0.125 φ0. This sharing of strain continues through each successive layer. At a distance of x m from the group the strain would thus be
φx= φ0 * r02 / x2.
(This is ignoring the effect of the hyper-angle which becomes very significant only at distances smaller than the nul radius).
This strain is added to the far side and subtracted from the nearside of the preon group that is at the distance x from the instigator of the strain, φx, and causes spacons to transfer from one side to the other at every clock cycle of a relevant spaceon – hence causing acceleration. Quantifying this the offset is φx/ φ0 which is the chance of a spaceon ‘changing sides’ as its volume turns off and then back on at each clock-pulse thus producing a position change in one second of
β s * φx/φ0 = c*φx/φ0
This change in velocity per second is the acceleration produced by the additional strain. Obviously this is acceleration due to gravity. There could be a constant of proportionality associated with this which here is assumed to be 1 meaning that for each clock-pulse a spaceon changes position when the value φx = φ0 – an incredibly high acceleration.
Combining this result with the standard Newtonian equation, GM/R2 and using the mass as N protons/ Avagadro’s number gives an acceleration of
6.7 *10-11 * N / 6*1026/ R2 = 1.1 * 10-37 * N/R2
Equating this with the equation
Acceleration = c *φx / φ0 whereφx =N φ0 r02 /R2
gives the magnitude of the
radius at φ0 for a proton as 1.9*10-23 metres.
This is the radius of the proton’s nul region caused by its mixture of quarks.
The quantity φ0 r02 is the mass of a particle and so if a proton has the value for the nul region of 1.9 * 10-23 the radius of the nul region for an electron can now be determined as (1/1837)0.5 of the nul region of the proton i.e. 4.4 * 10-25 m.
Apart from twisting into left or right hand modes spaceons also have what could be described as ‘spin’. (This term is, again, our translation of whatever is real.) This gives rise to magnetic and electromagnetic effects. As a newly converted spaceon leaves, say, an electron it can be considered to also have a spin which alters the probability of spaceon interactions. The spin is ‘shared out’ like strain for each layer of surrounding spaceons in the direction directly away from the source electron at each clock-pulse and so moves at the speed of light (β*s). This is a magnetic field and the spin causes a different probability of action on different sides of any electric particle.
When an electron meets a proton the positive spaceons leaving the proton are trapped by the electron and the negative spaceons leaving the electron are trapped by the proton – a mutually beneficial activity. At the same time the spins of the spaceons are placed in surrounding spaceons along with what are now excess strains/spins in the new combination – a group of oscillating, rotating, spaceons transferring their strains in a directed manner with the next set of spaceons – a photon is created.
The fact that each electron or quark has a continuous input and output of spaceons means that these particles cannot be thought of as just the central lumps; they are actually extended over a region with only an average position of plus or minus a spaceon. It means that for example, when passing an electron through a slit in some material, the input and output streams of spaceons get ‘out of step’ as some of it passes through the material whilst other parts do not. Precise position is also not possible.
One of the effects of the nul region is that spaceons surrounding it are always changing their 3D volume as the strain (φ0) causes it to change to a much smaller 3D volume (but the same hyper-volume). Even without entering the nul region spaceons are therefore not too precisely placed and hence position is not precise.
Inside the nul region is where ‘information’ such as values of spaceon properties are not in ‘our’ universe – ruled by distances in terms of spaceons. They are in juxtaposition with the existence potential which, in turn, is in juxtaposition with every other property – wherever it is in ‘our’ space orientated universe. This theory gives a basis for the faster than the speed of light transfer of information in particles previously ‘entangled’ together at a quantum level and then separated. It shows that our concept of the universe needs to be extended to take account of the interiors of the nul regions which are directly connected to each other because our concept of space does not actually apply.
A step too far?
The experience with which we are most familiar in our universe is not its volume and matter – it is our self-awareness – our consciousness. The argument has raged for years over its cause and its physics. It is often referred to as the ‘hard question’ for good reason.
Our brains work with electrical signals within our neurons forming our ideas and memories. These electrical properties are electrons, etc. moving with corresponding spaceons changing their sign. As each spaceon changes its sign it does so by entering the nul region which is around each particle of matter.
This nul region around every particle in the universe is where spaceons are being re-twisted and is close to their origination in the existence potential. All our brain activities results in streams of signals entering nul regions. What happens to the information contained in these streams – is it conserved?
The nul region is not within ‘our’ space of spaceons – it is adjacent to that from which all comes – the existence potential. Could this existence potential be interacting with our thoughts? Is harvesting our thoughts into/out of the existence potential what consciousness is?
Is this the doorway to heaven?!